Science System Temperature theory hypothesis eukaryote prokaryote Concepts to Know Characteristics of Life: Living things are made of cells – Smallest unit of an organism that is considered alive – Can be unicellular (bacteria) or multicellular (humans) Living things reproduce – Asexual: formation of a new organism from one parent. Living systems are in a state of perpetual motion. Down at the microscopic level, the atoms that make up biological macromolecules are, in the words of Richard Feynman, jiggling and wiggling ... Apr 26, 2018 · There are four macromolecules that make up living organisms: proteins, nucleic acids, fats and carbohydrates. Proteins: Molecular Machines Proteins, made up of amino acids, are the molecular machines that do the day-to-day work of the cell. Notes: Macromolecules. Image source. There are 4 classes of large molecules that make up the majority of living things. They are called Macromolecules. Since macromolecules are generally made up of many smaller molecules and atoms, they are referred to as polymers. to as macromolecules. Organic Compounds in Living Things Four main groups of organic (carbon-based) compounds are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates are composed primarily of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and used primarily by living things as a source of energy and for structure.